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中国教师节的传统你都了解吗

2018年09月17日 15:25
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Today is the 34nd Chinese Teacher’s Day – a festival celebrating the 2,300-year tradition of respecting teachers and education in China.
今天迎来了我国第34个教师节——为了庆祝2300年来尊师重教的传统的节日。
It’s similar to the birthday of Confucius or the birthday of private school tutor in ancient China.
它类似于中国古代庆祝孔夫子的诞辰或者私塾先生的生日。
The history of Teacher’s Day traces back to the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220). According to record, during the Han (202 BC–AD 220) and Jin (1115-1234) dynasties, on August 27 each year, the birthday of Confucius, the emperor would go to Confucius’ temple and pay tribute to the ancient philosopher followed by court officials, and would also invite royal teachers to the imperial court for a banquet. Local officials followed the court, and on this day, teachers around the nation enjoyed a day’s vacation and were given dried meat as gifts.
教师节的历史要追溯到汉朝(公元前206年到公元220年)。据史料记载,在汉、晋(公元1115到1234年)时代,每年农历八月二十七,即孔子诞辰日这天,皇帝要率领文武官员去祭拜孔庙,还要设宴邀请皇家的老师入宫。看到皇帝在这天祭孔、请教师吃饭,各地官府也纷纷效仿。这天还“置休经师,授束修(干肉)”。
The capital, all states and counties would also stage sacrificial ceremonies to worship Confucius, with local chiefs or the emperor leading rituals. Excellent-performed teachers would be chosen from academies and learning institutions nationwide, reporting to the royal court and given 500 liang (两) silver coins as awards.
上至都城,下至城乡,由帝王或者当地长官带领,人们都会举办盛大的祭典活动来纪念孔夫子。从全国各书院和学府挑选出的表现优秀的教师还会上报给宫廷,将给予500两白银作为奖励。
Until the Qing Dynasty, the sacrificial ceremony, on August 27, was of a larger scale. The teachers’ salaries in schools and academies around the nation were raised, and well-performing teachers would be conferred official titles or promoted to higher positions.
到了清代,农历八月二十七这天,不但祭典孔子的规模和范围愈加宏大,还提高了各个书院、学府、监院教师的薪金,成绩卓著者在这天还会被授职衔或者得到提升。
How were gifts presented to teachers in ancient China?
古代人们是如何向老师敬上礼品的?
Normally, an ancient teacher’s income included salary, accommodation and festival gifts. There was no fixed tuition fee, generally the parents paid teachers according to their household income. Both money and basic foodstuff could be paid in exchange for tuition.
一般来说,古代教师的收入包括工资、就餐和节礼福利。那时的学费不是固定的,家长们根据家庭收入来交学费。银钱或者基本的生活品都可以拿来抵学费。
In private schools, teachers always received money or gifts from the host family at certain festivals or at the beginning and end of each semester.
在私塾里,每年的特定节令或者新学年开始、结束,部分家长为表达敬意,会送钱送礼慰问老师。
The festivals in which teachers received gifts varied from region to region, while the most valued ones were the Duanwu, Mid-autumn and Chinese New Year festivals, as well as Confucius’ birthday and the private tutor’s birthday.
给教师敬上礼品的节日因区域不同也有差异。大多地方在端午、中秋、春节、孔子诞辰和私塾先生生日时都有这个习俗。
Among all the gift-giving festivals, the first meeting gift was a must. When students met their private tutors for the first time, they had to kneel down to Confucius’ spirit tablet and then to their private tutor, before presenting a "gift".
所有向老师敬礼的节日中,见面礼是必不可少的。学生第一次见到私塾先生时,得先跪拜孔夫子牌位,接着跪拜老师,然后献上“礼品”。
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